Beneath the earth’s crust lie hidden great treasures—including precious metals and gems. Talented and trained prospectors can uncover these treasures so they can be mined. In our language, words are loaded with meaning. It is up to teachers to help students prospect so they can mine for the rich meaning intended by the authors. The lessons in the unit focus on figurative language (symbolism, hyperbole and imagery) in fiction (poetry and prose) and nonfiction texts. This unit consists of a series of sequenced lessons. Each lesson contains sequenced learning activities designed to provide scaffolded instruction and practice to develop student mastery of skills
§ What is meant by figurative language, symbolism, hyperbole, and imagery?
§ How might one determine the meaning of a symbolic word, phrase, and/or section of fiction and/or non-fiction text?
§ What is the difference between literal meaning and symbolic meaning in fiction and nonfiction text?
§ Does symbolism/hyperbole/imagery look different in fiction text as opposed to nonfiction text?
§ How might one interpret the meaning of hyperbole and/or imagery?
§ What are the differences/similarities among symbolism, hyperbole, and imagery?
§ How might symbolism/hyperbole/imagery impact the overall written work?
Figurative Language and Symbolism
§ Literature: Passage: “Yellow Man by Moonlight” by Dewey; Poem: “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes from MAP Released Items Intermediate Level Year; Short Story: “Amir” from MAP Sample Items
§ Supplies: Overhead, transparency, transparency markers, scoring guide for formative assessment
§ Handouts: K-W-L Chart, Amir, Yellow Man by Moonlight, Mother to Son
§ Formative Assessment: provided
Digging Deep for Figurative Language
§ Literature: “Father William” by Lewis Carroll; “The Cowboy’s Home on Wheels” by LeeAnn; “The Prize” by Meridee Jones Cecil; “Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take the Garbage Out” by Shel Silverstein; “The Secret of Oak Island Money Pit” by Sharon Barry
§ Supplies: Overhead, transparency, transparency marker, scoring guide for formative assessment
§ Handouts: Common Hyperboles, Father William, The Cowboy’s Home on Wheels, The Prize, Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Sout Would Not Take the Garbage Out, The Secret of Oak Island Money Pit
§ Formative Assessment: provided
Imagine That! Analyzing Imagery
§ Literature: “Discovery” by Marion Dane Bauer; “The Language of Horses” by Monty Roberts; “A Retrieved Reformation” by O. Henry
§ Supplies: Overhead, transparency, transparency marker
§ Handouts: Discovery, The Language of Horses, A Retrieved Reformation, Mother to Son
§ Formative Assessment: provided
GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATION CONTINUUM
Targeted Learning for this unit represents the specific Grade-Level Expectations that are taught and assessed in this unit. Mastery of these skills is expected mastery for students at this grade level. Previous Learning indicates students’ probable beginning skill level. Future Learning provides the “next step” for instruction or student application of Communication Arts skills and concepts.
Identify and explain figurative language in poetry and prose (emphasize onomatopoeia and alliteration)
R2B: Identify and explain figurative language in poetry and prose (emphasize symbolism, hyperbole and imagery) CA 2, 1.5, 1.6, 3.5
Identify and explain figurative language in poetry and prose (emphasize jargon, dialect and slang)
Identify and explain figurative language in nonfiction text (emphasize onomatopoeia and alliteration)
R3B: Identify and explain figurative language in nonfiction text (emphasize symbolism, hyperbole and imagery) CA 3, 1.5, 1.6, 3.5
Identify and explain figurative language in nonfiction text (emphasize jargon, dialect and slang)
SHOW-ME STANDARDS ALIGNMENT
CA 2: reading and evaluating fiction, poetry, and drama
CA 3: reading and evaluating non-fiction works and materials
1.5 comprehend and evaluate written, visual and oral presentations and works
1.6 discover and evaluate patterns and relationships in information, ideas and structures
3.5 reason inductively from a set of specific facts and deductively from general premises
Allen, Janet. Tools for Teaching Content Literacy. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2004.
Angelillo, Janet. Writing About Reading: From Book Talk to Literary Essay, Grades 3-8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003.
Beers, Kylene. When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003.
Billmeyer, Rachel. Strategies to Engage the Mind of the Learner: Building Strategic Learners. Omaha, NE: Dayspring Printing, 2003.
Harvey, Stephanie. Strategies That Work. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2000.
Keene, Ellen Oliver and Susan Zimmermann. Mosaic of Thought. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1997.
Kemper, Dave, Sebranek, Patrick, and Meyer, Verne. Write Source: A Book for Writing, Thinking, and Learning. Wilmington, MA: Great Source, 2005.
Robb, Laura. Reader’s Handbook. Wilmington, MA: Great Source, 2002.
Tovani, Cris. I Read It, But I Don’t Get It. Portland, ME: Stenhouse, 2000.
Tovani, Cris. Do I Really Have to Teach Reading: content Comprehension, Grades 6-12. Protland, ME: Stenhouse, 2004.
Wormeli, Rick. Summarization in Any Subject: 50 Techniques to Improve Student Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2005.
Websites for Passages
“Yellow Man by Moonlight” by Jennifer Owings Dewey MAP Released Items Intermediate Level Year 2005
“Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes MAP Released Items Intermediate Level 2002
Short Story: Amir from MAP Sample Items Grade 7
“Father William” by Lewis Carroll
“The Cowboy’s Home on Wheels” by LeeAnn Blankenship.
“Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take the Garbage Out” by Shel Silverstein.
“The Secret of Oak Island Money Pit” by Sharon Barry.
“Discovery” by Marion Dane Bauer. MAP Released Items Intermediate Item 2000 www.coe.missouri.edu/~map/mapcd/resources/comarts/grade7.pdf
“The Language of Horses” by Monty Roberts. MAP Sample Items Grde 7
“A Retrieved Reformation” by O. Henry.
1. As I reflect on the unit, to what extent were the students productively engaged in the work? How do I know?
2. Did the unit allow for students to engage in activities and learning situations which were consistent with the district’s curriculum guide?
3. What feedback did I receive from students indicating they achieved understanding and that the objectives were met for this unit?
4. Did I adjust my goals or my work as I taught the lesson? Why? How?
5. What specific elements of the assessments did students have the most difficulty with?
What could be done to enhance student learning for these specific skills?
6. If I had the opportunity to teach this unit again to this same group of students, what would I do differently?
7. If there was one thing from this lesson that I could share with a colleague, what would it be?