LESSON TWO: Problem/solution
Students write a paragraph in which they analyze problem/solution and characterization.
GRADE LEVEL EXPECTATIONS
R2C/R3C Evaluate proposed solutions in a given text.
R2C Analyze character, plot, setting, point of view and development of theme across genres.
§ Sources of Literature
o One copy of “The Three Little Pigs”
o Teacher copy of narrative frame and problem/solution frame questions
o Several children’s books for group guided practice
o Student copies of lesson assessment
o Chalkboard, overhead projector, or Smart Board
o Scoring guide to formative assessment
§ Handouts provided
o Formative Assessment
§ Words to know
o character traits
o point of view
Students will write a paragraph in which they analyze problem/solution and characterization. Scoring guide provided.
1. Read to students “The Three Little Pigs.” After reading the story, lead a discussion which includes the following elements: 1) the trial and error strategy of problem solving used by the pigs and wolf; and 2) an analysis of the plot, character, setting, tone, point of view and development of universal theme. Throughout the discussion, the utilize on the chalkboard/overhead projector/Smart Board a narrative frame to facilitate the analysis of plot, character, setting, tone, point of view, and development of universal theme. Also use a problem/solution frame that encourages students to evaluate the pigs’ proposed solutions and their effectiveness.
Use problem/solution frame and narrative frame in this packet that are adapted from Marzano’s book Classroom Instruction that Works. Marzano, R., D. Pickering, and J. Pollock. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
2. Provide students with several children’s books. In groups formed by using one of Kagan’s cooperative grouping strategies, students choose a book, read it, and answer the problem/solution frame questions that evaluate the proposed solutions of the characters in the stories and narrative frame questions which help analyze plot, character, setting, tone, point of view and development of universal theme. Students then individually write a paragraph on one of the following prompts:
a. Choose one problem faced by a character and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution using details and/or examples from the text as support.
b. Choose one character and analyze how his personality traits contribute to the problem/solution using details from the text as support.
Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning. San Clemente, CA: Resources for Teachers, Inc.
Teachers must use books with easily identified problem solution (avoid ABC and counting books, picture books, and lengthy books such as chapter books). Grimm’s fairy tales are especially effective. Do not use “The Three Little Pigs.” Teacher may also want to peruse books prior to the activity in order to evaluate student accuracy during the activity.
Do any of the characters’ personality traits lead to the problem?
How does the setting contribute to the problem?
How does the solution chosen by the character solve the problem?
How does the chosen solution create additional complications?
What would be a better solution for this problem?
Why is this solution more effective?
How would changing the story’s point of view alter the problem or solution?
Was this genre an effective choice to relay the universal theme? Why/why not?
After students finish their paragraphs, they should share their responses with peers using Kagan’s Pair and Share cooperative grouping activity and critique them according to the scoring guide below.
Content scoring guide:
10 points Response includes a complete and reasonable evaluation of the solution and uses details and/or examples from the text as support.
Response includes a complete and reasonable analysis of personality traits and how they contribute to the problem/solution and uses details and/or examples from the text as support.
5 points Response includes a reasonable evaluation of the solution but details are overly general, simplistic, OR only one supporting detail is given.
Response includes a reasonable analysis of the personality traits of a character and how they contribute to the problem/solution but details are overly general, simplistic, OR only one supporting detail is given.
0 points Other
Frame scoring guide:
5 points Frame includes accurate answers to all given questions.
0 points Other