LESSON THREE: Paraphrasing and Summarizing
Students review pre- and post-reading strategies by using an entrance slip activity. The teacher introduces and models the skills of paraphrasing and summarizing. Students then practice those two skills using a sample text.
R1H apply post-reading strategies to comprehend and interpret nonfiction text; question to clarify, reflect, analyze, draw conclusions, summarize, paraphrase
R3C use details from text to paraphrase author’s stated ideas; make predictions; make inferences; evaluate the accuracy of the information; identify and interpret author’s purpose, slant and bias; respond to two or more sources; sequence events; compare and contrast details; identify and explain cause and effect; identify problem solving processes and explain the effectiveness of solutions
§Sources of literature
o Pen or pencil, paper, journals
o Sticky notes or scratch paper for notes
o “13 Reasons Our Ancestors Migrated” - http://www.ancestry.com/library/view/columns/george/1436.asp
o Children of Immigrants example article
§Words to know
o author’s purpose
o draw conclusions
Students write a summary paragraph, to be collected and scored. This activity may be assigned as homework. Paragraph form includes a beginning, middle and end; topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence. Scoring guide provided.
1. Review previous day’s information about pre-reading strategies and post-reading skills, especially “questioning to clarify.”
Consider using the “entrance slip” activity. As students come into the room, they write on a piece of paper (half sheet, note paper, index card, journal, etc.) the things that they learned recently about pre-reading and post-reading strategies to help them remember and understand the information better. Slips can then be collected, shared with a partner and discussed with the class.
Why is it important to draw conclusions, summarize, and paraphrase nonfiction text after reading?
What are the authors’ main ideas in each article?
2. Introduce the term “paraphrase” as a post-reading skill that will help students to understand and remember what they have read. Paraphrase: to restate what is written, keeping the basic meaning but putting it into one’s own words and sentence variation. Model the strategy by reading or displaying on the overhead a short piece of nonfiction, then paraphrasing orally.
3. Students read Celebrating World Refugee Day. Remind them to use their pre-reading strategies. After reading, put students in pairs and have them create a paraphrased version of the text that can be shared orally with the class. (Share a few versions.)
4. Introduce the concept of “summarizing” as a post-reading skill that will help students synthesize what they have read. Directly instruct the students in a summarizing strategy. Teachers may utilize a summarizing strategy of choice. Model the strategy with a short, unfamiliar nonfiction piece on an overhead or board. End by showing students how to write the summary as a paragraph. Guide the students through the strategy taught for summarizing. Allow students to mark up copies of text as needed.
Summarize: to make a brief statement or account, in your own words, of the main points. Teaching students to summarize helps them generate main ideas, connect central ideas, eliminate redundant and unnecessary information, and remember what they read. (Source: Glossary of Terms for Missouri Grade Level Expectations, Communication Arts)
A good strategy that may be helpful is the “Rule-Based” strategy; a strategy with specific guidelines for students on what to delete. The remaining information is useful in creating the summary.
2 Points: Summary is in a well-written paragraph.
1 Point: Summary is attempted.
0 Points: Incomplete or inaccurate response