LESSON TWO: Identify and Evaluate Problem-Solving Processes and Solutions
Students identify and evaluate problems, problem-solving processes, and the effectiveness of proposed solutions. Students read a nonfiction passage to identify the problem, the problem-solving process, a solution and evaluate the anticipated effectiveness of the solution.
R3C Using details from text
§ evaluate adequacy of evidence
§ determine author’s purpose based on text analysis
§ analyze details from text for
o word choice and connotation
o selection of details
o organizational effectiveness
o accuracy of information
§ analyze multiple text
o by comparing and contrasting details
o by determining importance of information
o for authors’ viewpoints
§ identify problem solving processes and explain the effectiveness of solutions
o Overhead projector, Notepad, or Smartboard
§ Handouts provided
§ Words to know
o author's purpose
o text features
o graphic organizer
Students read a teacher-selected nonfiction passage that
§ presents a problem,
§ describes the process being used to address that problem, and
§ offers one or more solutions for the problem.
Students write an accurate description of
§ the problem,
§ the process used to address that problem,
§ one appropriate solution and
§ the anticipated effectiveness of the solution.
A scoring guide is provided.
1. As a class, students identify a school-related problem that does not have one obvious solution.
For example, the school dance is usually held in the school gymnasium. The gymnasium was recently flooded and is being repaired.
Using the Think-Pair-Share strategy, students develop possible processes/plans for solving the problem, not merely identifying possible solutions.
What is it?
Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative learning structure that promotes the sharing and understanding of information.
What is its purpose?
Think-Pair-Share facilitates learning in two areas:
§ the social skills of positive interdependence, equal participation, individual accountability and
§ the academic skill of acquiring knowledge and understanding. The ‘think time’ increases the quality of student responses.
How do I do it?
Preparation for class:
1. Do we want pairing done before class for mixing abilities?
§ Present a problem or open-ended question to the class.
§ Give the students ‘think time’ and direct them to think about the problem/question.
§ Following the ‘think time’, direct students to turn to their Learning Partner and work together, sharing ideas, discussing, clarifying, and challenging.
§ The pair then shares their ideas with another pair or the whole class. When sharing, they share their partner’s ideas as well as their own.
2. For the purpose of modeling, the teacher discusses
§ a real-life problem the school or community has faced,
§ the problem-solving process used including the possible solutions,
§ the solution selected,
§ the effectiveness of this solution, and
§ why the solution was/was not effective.
It may be helpful to create a graphic organizer on the board or overhead projector to record this information. Assist students to recognize the problem-solving process is not always evident. It is a mental process in which we compare and contrast our options to determine the best solution.
What factors might determine whether a solution was effective or not?
3. Provide students with a copy of a nonfiction passage or a series of passages on the same topic that include
§ text features
§ a problem,
§ a description of the process that was or is being used to address that problem and, if possible,
§ a solution.
Before reading the passage, students identify text features within the passage(s) and how they aid comprehension. Students read the entire passage(s).
4. Using the information from the passage, students use the think-pair-share strategy to identify and describe the problem, the problem-solving process, and the solution provided. Then students should evaluate that solution, explaining whether it is effective and why or why not. Questions for Student Discussion are available for projection and/or as a handout for the students.