LESSON SEVEN: Capitalization and Punctuation
Working with partners and in groups, students read sentences, determine the correct punctuation/capitalization for sentences, and punctuate/capitalize sentences. To apply learning, students independently write four sentences about pictures (two interrogative and two declarative sentences) they have selected.
o W2C The student will compose text using correct ending punctuation in declarative and interrogative sentences and commas in dates.
o W2B The student will use conventions of capitalization in written text including days of the week and names of towns, cities, and states
Sources of Literature
o “Do You Have a Pet?” by Mary Sullivan
o “Did You See the Jet Plane?” by Mary Sullivan
o “Leaves Around the Year” by Mary Sullivan
o “Who Told My Secret?” by Mary Sullivan
o Overhead and transparencies
o Sentence strips
o Magazines with many photographs
o Writing utensils
o Slips of paper with types of sentences
o Index cards
o Capitalization and punctuation worksheets
Words to know
o declarative sentence
o interrogative sentence
Students complete an activity called “Snapshot Sentences”. Students find a snapshot/picture from a magazine, book, or other source (students may draw their own). They cut out the picture and paste it at the top of their sheet. Underneath the picture, students write four sentences about the picture (two interrogative and two declarative sentences). After all students have completed the activity, make a wall collage with them.
1. State the objective. Say, “Today, we are going to learn how to write and correctly punctuate and capitalize declarative (sentences that make a statement) and interrogative (questions) sentences. Display 10 sentences on sentence strips (five of each kind). Choose students randomly and ask them to pick up an already made ending punctuation mark and put it with a sentence that represents itself. When all the sentences are complete, discuss why punctuation marks were put where they were. Discuss the importance of capitalizing names of cities, towns, states, and days of the week.
Does every sentence need an ending punctuation mark? Explain.
How do you know which ending punctuation mark to use? Explain.
When you change ending punctuation marks, how does it change the sentence?
Do the ending punctuation marks change the way you read the
Why do we capitalize names of cities, towns, and states and not the words town, city, and state?
Why do we capitalize names of days of the week and not the words day or week?
2. Display sentences along with poems such as “Do You Have a Pet?” by Mary Sullivan (interrogative) , “Did You See the Jet Plane?” by Mary Sullivan (interrogative), “Leaves Around the Year” by Mary Sullivan (declarative), and “Who Told My Secret?” by Mary Sullivan (declarative) on the overhead for students to see. The punctuation is left out along with capital letters of cities, states, towns, and days of the week. Through a “Think-aloud” (Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis) model how to think out loud to show students what “you” do when you want to correctly punctuate and capitalize the sentences. Show how there are key words to let the reader know what kind of sentence it is. Circle the key words. After all the sentences are complete, read the sentences orally according to what the ending punctuation is.
What are some of the key words that you see for sentences that end with question marks?
What other term do we use fordeclarative and interrogative sentences?
Should every sentence begin with a capital letter? Explain.
Why is there a comma in a date?
During the modeling activity, point out key words that help the reader determine what kind of sentence it is.
When reading the sentences orally, accent your voice however needed.
Students echo the sentence after it is read aloud to give the students practice reading the sentences with different ending punctuation.
Review with students what makes a complete sentence and capitalization rules.
Make sure that when a sentence is modeled it includes examples with dates.
Be sure to include poetry examples when modeling sentences.
3. Provide a container with a slip of paper for each student. Each slip of paper either has a question mark (interrogative sentence) or period (declarative sentence). Each student draws out one slip of paper. The students are given a minute or two to create and record their own sentence using the ending punctuation they have. The students stand up and orally read their sentences the way they’re supposed to be read. This activity can be repeated as many times as needed. Students exchange ending punctuation marks and do the process over again.
It is important that students read the sentences according to the ending punctuation mark. Pay close attention to how students read the sentences.
4. Students participate in a game called “Inside Outside Circle” by Kagan. Distribute an index card to each student with sentences written correctly. The students form one large circle. Students number off 1, 2, 1, 2… The 2’s take two steps forward, turn around and shake a number 1’s hand, which will become their partner. Student # 2 will read his/her sentence to student #1. Student #1 tells student #2 what words need capital letters and what punctuation is necessary. When finished, the roles reverse. When partners are finished, they raise their hand to let the teacher know. When all partners have finished, the teacher instructs movement. The outside circle moves according to teacher instruction. The inside circle remains still. Now, students have a new partner to continue.
Make sure you have an even number of students, and participate if necessary.
Words that need to be capitalized and the punctuation marks need to be underlined or highlighted in some way. For example: The date on Monday will be June 10, 2004.
Model this activity before beginning. It is important for students to practice and understand rules of Inside/Outside circle before entering into an academic activity. Otherwise, playful, disruptive, and off-task behavior may occur.
5. Students may need practice with simple capitalization and punctuation worksheets.